Andy Gardner

Dr Andy Gardner

Principal Investigator


Email: Andy Gardner
Phone: +44 1334 463385


Dr Andy Gardner is a NERC Independent Research Fellow at the School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Scotland. His research focuses on Darwinian adaptation. Natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world, but at what level is this design expected to manifest – gene, individual, society – and what is its function? Social evolution provides a window on this problem, by pitting the interests of genes, individuals and societies against each other. Gardner develops general theory on the topics of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection, and also tailors general theory to the biology of particular species to facilitate empirical testing. He works on a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, crustaceans, insects, arachnids, fish, mice and humans.

Further information

Gardner group website
University of St Andrews staff profile

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